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Friday, 30 November 2012

New Drug Harm Charts/Graphs/Data Reflect Favourably on Psychedelics & Cannabis

Drug Harm Charts & Psychedelics‘ – we present new research demonstrating the claim that psychedelics are much safer than other recreational drugs and that their ‘Class-A’ classification is therefore indefensible. The original research paper can be found here: ‘Quantifying the RR of harm to self and others from substance misuse: results from a survey of clinical experts across Scotland’ Abstract Objective To produce an expert consensus hierarchy of harm to self and others from legal and illegal substance use. Design Structured questionnaire with nine scored categories of harm for 19 different commonly used substances. Setting/participants 292 clinical experts from across Scotland. Results There was no stepped categorical distinction in harm between the different legal and illegal substances. Heroin was viewed as the most harmful, and cannabis the least harmful of the substances studied. Alcohol was ranked as the fourth most harmful substance, with alcohol, nicotine and volatile solvents being viewed as more harmful than some class A drugs. Conclusions The harm rankings of 19 commonly used substances did not match the A, B, C classification under the Misuse of Drugs Act. The legality of a substance of misuse is not correlated with its perceived harm. These results could inform any legal review of drug misuse and help shape public health policy and practice. ——————————————————————— The main outcome of this study is a ranking by Scottish addiction experts of 19 recreational drugs according to their mean harm score. Two hundred and ninety-two addiction multidisciplinary experts across Scotland were involved making it the largest national panel to be involved in this type of study. What you read here, and in the full research article if you chose to read it, is the view of trained professionals and experts – it is not conjecture, it is not biased, it is not based on political standpoint.
What this suggests about Psychedelic Drugs: Magic mushrooms are amongst the safest of all recreational drugs: their class-A rating is therefore a mistake. Magic mushrooms are safer than all other drugs (except for cannabis): psilocybin mushrooms (a form of psychedelic drug) are significantly safer than tobacco or alcohol. Magic mushrooms are safer than a medication currently prescribed to children on the NHS and by health-services around the world: Ritalin. LSD is safer than tobacco or alcohol. Of 19 drugs it was the 4th least dangerous to the individual users themselves. LSD and Magic Mushrooms (the only psychedelics in this study) are both class-A drugs, despite the ranking in this study, and in other studies. Discussion If we take the examples of Cannabis (1.7 harm score) & Alcohol (2.6 harm score): do these average ratings of experts’ opinions of harm make any sense? The estimated number of death from alcohol each year is between 30-40,000 , whilst there are no recorded deaths that result directly from cannabis. Surely alcohol’s harm rating ought to be many times greater than that of cannabis? Further, whilst this study aims and (to some extent) succeeds in reflecting the relative harms of each drug: we must remember that many of the 19 drugs mentioned also have social and medical benefits that need to be factored in to policy making decisions. We at Cognitive Liberty UK argue that this research is a part of a growing body of evidence which suggest that LSD& Magic Mushrooms, due to their comparatively low risks/dangers, and their proven efficacy as treatments for use in clinical psychology, should be downgraded from Class-A drugs. At the very least psychedelics should be downgraded to Class-C drugs, as an initial step towards re-integrating them into society.

Chemical Structure

3-[2-(Dimethylamino) ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol; (C12H16N2O); Isolation It has been successfully isolated in trace amounts from the fruiting bodies of Psilocybe mexicana*. Characteristic Features 1. It is obtained as plates from methanol having mp 173–176°C. 2. It is an amphoteric substance. 3. It is unstable in solution, more precisely in an alkaline solution. 4. It is very slightly soluble in water. 5. Its uvmax: 222, 260, 267, 283, 293 nm (log ε 4.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.7, 3.6). Uses It is a hallucinogenic substance Note It is a controlled substance listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308, 11 (1995). C. Psilocybin Synonym Indocybin; Biological Sources These are same as mentioned in psilocin ‘B’ above. Chemical Structure
3-[2-(Dimethylamino) ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol dihydrogen phosphate ester; (C12H17N2O4P). Isolation The method of isolation of psilocybin is the same as stated under psilocin. Characteristic Features 1. Psilocybin is obtained as crystals from boiling water having mp 220-228°C; and from boiling methanol mp 185-195°C. 2. It has uvmax (methanol): 220, 267, 290 nm (log ε 4.6, 3.8, 3.6). 3. The pH of a saturated solution in 50% aqueous ethanol is 5.2. 4. Solubility Profile: It is soluble in 20 parts of boiling water, 120-parts of boiling methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; and practically insoluble in chloroform, benzene. Uses It is a hallucinogenic substance and exerts its action at a dose level of 6-20 mg. Biosynthesis of Serotonin, Psilocin and Psilocybin The different steps involved in the biosynthesis of serotonin, psilocin and psilocybin may be summarized as stated below: 1. L-Tryptophan upon oxidation gives rise to the corresponding hydroxylated derivative known as 5-hydroxyl-L-tryptophan, which further undergoes decarboxylation to yield serotonin also termed as 5-hydroxytryptamine (or 5-HT). 2. L-Tryptophan undergoes decarboxylation to yield the tryptamine, which affords N-Methylation and N,N-dimethylation in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The resulting dimethyl derivative upon oxidation gives rise to the product psilocin another hydroxylated derivative. 3. Phosphorylation of the hydroxyl function in psilocin affords psilocybin. 4. Interestingly, both psilocin and psilocybin are solely responsible for attributing the hallucinogenic properties of the so-called ‘magic mushrooms’, that include species of Psilocybe, Panaeolus and the like.

Identification Tests

1. Serotonin Hydrochloride (C10H12N2O.HCl) It is obtained as hygroscopic crystals, sensitive to light having mp 167-168°C. It is water soluble and the aqueous solutions are found to be stable at pH 2-6.4. 2. Serotonin complex with Creatinine Sulphate Monohydrate (C14H21 N5O6S.H2O) (Antemovis) It is obtained as plates which decomposes at 215°C. Its uvmax (water at pH 3.5): is 275 nm (ε 15,000). It has two dissociation constants pK1' = 4.9 and pK2' = 9.8. The pH of a 0.01 molar aqueous solution is 3.6. It is found to be soluble in glacial acetic acid; very sparingly soluble in methanol and ethanol (95%); and insoluble in absolute ethanol, acetone, pyridine, ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and ether. Uses 1. It is a potent vasoconstrictor. 2. It is also a neurotransmitter in the CNS and is important in sleep-walking-cycles. B. Psilocin Synonyms Psilocyn. Biological Sources It is obtained from the sacred mushroom of Mexico known as Teonanacatl. It is also found in the fruiting bodies of Psilocybe maxicana Heim, (Agaricaceae).

Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan

2.8 Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan L-Tryptophan is a neutral heterocyclic amino acid containing essentially an indole ring system. It has been observed that it serves as a precursor for a wide spectrum of indole alkaloids. However, there exists an ample concrete evidence that major rearrangement reaction may convert the predominant indole-ring system into a quinoline-ring system thereby enhancing further the overall ability of tryptophan to act broadly as an alkaloid precursor. The various alkaloids derived from tryptophan are conveniently classified into the following categories, namely: (i) Simple Indole Alkaloids; (ii) Simple b-Carboline Alkaloids; (iii) Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids; (iv) Quinoline Alkaloids; (v) Pyrroloindole Alkaloids; (vi) Ergot Alkaloids. These aforesaid categories of alkaloids shall be discussed separately with typical important examples followed by the possible biosynthetic pathways, wherever necessary. 2.8.1 Simple Indole Alkaloids L-Tryptophan (i.e., a-aminoindole-3-propanoic acid) on decarboxylation yields tryptamine. The Nmethyl and N, N-dimethyl derivatives of the latter are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom as serotonin—a simple hydroxylated derivative. Sequential biotransformation viz., decarboxylation, N-methylation and hydroxylation gives rise to the formation of psilocin; whereas, phosphorylation of the OH group in psilocin yields psilocybin. The three alkaloids, namely: serotonin, psilocin and psilocybin shall be discussed in the sections that follow:
A. Serotonin Synonyms 5-Hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT; Enteramine; Thrombocytin; Thrombotonin; Biological Sources The root bark of Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae) (American Unplanted Cotton) contains serotonin. Chemical Structure
3-(2-Aminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-ol; (C10H12N2O).

Saturday, 24 November 2012

Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius is a species of mushroom in the Cortinariaceae family. Commonly known as laughing gym, laughing Jim, or the spectacular rustgill, this large orange mushroom is typically found growing on tree stumps, logs, or tree bases. Some subspecies of this mushroom contain the hallucinogenic compound psilocybin. Taxonomy This species was formerly known as Gymnopilus spectabilis, or Pholiota spectabilis v. junonia (Fr.) J.E Lange. The 'Gymn' in the present nomen means 'naked', and 'Juno' was the wife of Jupiter. In Japan this mushroom is called waraitake, which translates to "laughing mushroom" The cap ranges from 7 to 20 cm across, is convex, and is bright orange, orange/brown, or reddish brown with a dry scaly surface. The stem is 25 to 265 mm long, 8 to 9 mm thick, and often narrows near the base. The frail ring is dusted with rusty orange spores, the flesh is yellow and the gill attachment to the stem is adnate to sub-decurrent. It has a bitter taste, stains red with KOH and turns green when cooked in a pan. The spore print is rusty orange. "Each individual mushroom can weigh several pounds."Similar species This mushroom is often mistaken for Gymnopilus ventricosus, which contains no psilocybin. Distribution and habitat Gymnopilus junonius is a very widely distributed mushroom which grows in dense clusters on dead hardwoods and conifers. This mushroom grows just about everywhere that decaying wood can be found. Biochemistry This mushroom has subspecies which contain the hallucinogen psilocybin. Specimens found in the eastern US or Japan are more likely to contain psilocybin than similar mushrooms found in the western part of the US or Europe. This mushroom contains bis-noryangonin and hispidine, which are structurally related to alpha-pyrones found in kava.

Gymnopilus aeruginosus

Gymnopilus aeruginosus, also known as the Magic Blue Gym, is a mushroom which grows in clusters on dead wood and wood chip mulch. It is widely distributed and common in the Pacific Northwest. It has a rusty orange spore print and a bitter taste and contains the hallucinogen psilocybin. It was given its current name by mycologist Rolf Singer in 1951. Description Cap The cap is (2) 5 – 15 cm (23) across, convex with an incurved margin and expands to broadly convex to almost plane in age. The top is dry, fibrillose, and scaly, often with a blueish-green tinge when young. The color is variable, often with various bluish green, pink, or vinaceous patches. The cap is sometimes cracked in age. The flesh is pallid to whitish, sometimes turning buff or pinkish-buff in age. The scales are tawny or reddish becoming dark brown, even the margin. Gills The gills are close or crowded, and broad. They are buff to yellow-orange or ochre, and adnexed to adnate. They are at first slightly decurrent, often seceding. The edges are even to slightly rough. Spores Spores are 6—9 µm by 3.5—4.5 µm and have no germ pore. They are roughened and elliptical. Pleurocystidia are rare and clamp connections are present. The basidia each have four spore. Gymnopilus aeruginosus has a rusty to rusty-orange or rusty-cinnamon spore print. Stipe The stipe is (3) 5 – 12 cm long, (0.4) 1.0 — 1.5 cm (4) thick, and has a more or less equal structure. It is covered with appressed fibrils, soon disappearing. It is smooth, dry, dusted with rusty orange spores and has a cottony, scanty, yellowish, partially fibrillose veil that leaves an evanescent zone of hairs near the apex of the stipe. It is colored more or less like the cap; it is flesh whitish, tinged greenish or bluish green, becoming yellowish or pinkish brown when dry. It is solid but becomes hollow, and is sometimes striated. Habitat and formation Gymnopilus aeruginosus grows gregariously to cespitosely on stumps, logs, and woodchip mulch/sawdust on hardwood and conifers; Gymnopilus aeruginosus grows in spring, fall, and winter, common in the Pacific Northwest, it also grows in some of the southern states of the United States, such as Tennessee, and Georgia. It is also found in Japan and Korea.

Panaeolus olivaceus

Panaeolus olivaceus (syn. Panaeolus castaneifolius) is a semi-rare and widely distributed little brown mushroom which contains the hallucinogen psilocybin, is often mistaken for Panaeolina foenisecii, and is distinguished by its black spore print and darker gill coloration when mature, as well as a slightly thicker stem. It is even more easily mistaken for Panaeolus cinctulus and can be distinguished from that species by its more campanulate cap shape when young and slightly roughened spores. It is also easily confused with Panaeolina castaneifolia, a species which has spores that are dark brown and significantly more roughened. Description Cap: 1— 3(4) cm across, Distinctly campanulate then subhemispheric to convex, becoming broadly conic, not fully expanding, incurved margin when young, dark smoky-grayish to dark cinnamon, drying to a straw-yellow or slightly olive-gray color, remaining more reddish-brown towards the center, hygrophanous, smooth, sometimes striated or finely corrugated, flesh thick and firm. Gills: Adnate to adnexed, close, thin, pallid, mottled, slightly olive-greenish, becoming dark purplish gray-black in age, edge whitish. Stipe: 4— 6(7.5) cm by 3— 4(6) mm thick, equal to slightly tapering at the base, hollow, brittle, pruinose and slightly striate, no veil remnants. Grayish to ochraceous, tan or purple at the base. Spores: Black, slightly roughened, 12 — 15(17) x 7 — 8.5(10) micrometers, elliptic, rugose or verrucose. Microscopic features: Basidia 24 — 28 x 10 - 12 micrometers. Cheilocystidia (20)24— 30(38) x (5)7 — 10 micrometers, abundant, neck often flexuous and apices usually obtuse, thin walled and hyaline, pleurocystidia rare or absent, not projecting beyond plane of basidia. Habitat and formation Panaeolus olivaceus grows scattered to gregariously in rich grassy areas, from late summer through December, across North and South America, likely more widely distributed; it has been collected in the U.S. states of Washington, Oregon, Georgia, Canada's Quebec and in the United Kingdom.

Sclerotia - Philosophers Stones - Magic Truffles - Magic Mushrooms

The Psilocybe Tampanensis Is a psychoactive or “magic” mushroom that produces sclerotia. Many shroom fans also know them by names such as “magic truffles” or "philosophers' stones". A sclerotium is a dense mass of mycelium located underground used to store food reserves. But the Tampanensis also uses them to store psilocybin, the active psychedelic compound found in magic mushroom species. Sclerotia look like little rocks and have a somewhat nutty taste. Users report their taste is not as bad as that of other magic mushroom varieties. The Tampanensis also produces mushroom “fruits” that grow above the surface, but due to their lower psilocybin content, they are not as potent as the sclerotia. The Tampanensis was the first magic truffle to storm the European markets. There are no records of it being used in previous centuries. In nature, it appears to be a very rare mushroom species, since all current Tampanensis descend from a single sample that was discovered only once, near Tampa, Florida. Effects As the name “philosopher’s stone” implies, it produces a deep and thoughtful trip and a lot of giggling. Visual effects are slightly less pronounced than with other magic mushrooms. Main effects can last up to 6 hours.

Wednesday, 21 November 2012

Psychedelic Effects

Four levels or intensity of effect have been observed in the psychedelic experience. The strongest factor in determining level is dosage but relaxation, experience and environment also play a part. Some experienced people report a "rabbit hole effect," the ability to traverse to different levels irrelevant of dosage. baseline how you feel before taking a drug off baseline Very mild effect. Relaxation. Giggling. Like being stoned but with enhanced visual perception: colors may seem brighter, patterns on the surface of things more eye-grabbing. Also: a feeling of lightness and euphoria, and a slight tingling in the body. Music sounds better. plus one (+1) Stronger visual hallucinations. Bright colors stand out, objects appear to ripple or breathe. Colored patterns behind the eyes are vivid, more active. Moments of reflection and distractive thought patterns. Thoughts and thinking become enhanced. Creative urges. Euphoria. Connection with others, empathy. Sense of time distorted or lost. plus two (+2) Very obvious visual effects. Curved or warped patterns. Familiar objects appear strange as surface details distract the eye. Imagination and 'mind's eye' images vivid, three dimensional. Some confusions of the senses. Some awareness of background mental processes: such as balance systems or auditory visual perception. Deep store memory becomes accessible. Images or experiences may rise to the fore. Music is powerful and can affect mood. Sense of time lost. plus three (+3) Very strong hallucinations such as objects morphing into other objects. Intense depersonalization - the barriers between you and the universe begin to break down. You feel you have connection with everything around you. You can experience contradictory feelings simultaneously. Some loss of reality. Time meaningless. Senses blend into one. Feeling of being born. Multiple splitting of the ego. Powerful awareness of your own mental processes and senses. Highly symbolic visions when eyes are closed. plus four (+4) View Treatment Centers Find Local Treatment Centers Now Learn more now A very rare experience. Total loss of visual connection with reality. The senses cease to function in the normal way. Total loss of self. Merging with space, other objects, or the universe. The loss of reality becomes so severe that it defies explanation. Pure white light. Difficult to put into words.

History of Mushroom Use

Based on representations in rock paintings, many historians believe that magic mushrooms may have been in use since 9000 years before the birth of Christ, at least in North American cultures. Among Aztec and Mayan ruins in Central America, statues and other artifacts of what appear to be mushrooms have been unearthed. Many believe that the substance that the Aztecs called the “flesh of the gods” was indeed, mushrooms. In these cultures, mushrooms were used to bring on a trance, cause visions, and allow the user to communicate with the gods. The word “berserk” has some ties to the use of magic mushrooms. Legendary Berserkers were Norse warriors who were infamous throughout history for fighting a in a trance-like vehemence, thought to have been fueled by pre-battle consumption of magic mushrooms. Mushrooms and the Sixties Hippie Movement The notion of the magic mushroom having a long and holy use in history is somewhat controversial. Some folks point out that none of the evidence that has been presented in regards to the historical use of mushrooms is definitive, and that people see what they want to see in ancient sculptures, paintings and manuscripts. Regardless, Westerners began to enjoy the effects of magic mushrooms in the middle of the twentieth century following an article that appeared in Life magazine in 1957 by Gordon Wesson, a mycologist who had traveled to Mexico to study mushrooms and ended up consuming magic mushrooms during a ceremony that he participated in with the Mazatec peoples of Southern Mexico. This article spurred the use of magic mushrooms in what became known as the hippie movement of the 1960s

'Magic mushrooms' create positive mental and physical health benefits

(NaturalNews) Taking just the right amount of a substance found in "magic mushrooms" can help to positively improve attitude, mood, behavior, and happiness levels, according to new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Psychopharmacology. Researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Md., determined that psilocybin, a psychedelic substance found in certain mushrooms, can help improve a person's general well-being for up to a year after taking it -- and it allegedly does not cause any known negative side effects. "We seem to have found levels of the substance (psilocybin) and particular conditions for its use that give a high probability of a profound and beneficial experience, a low enough probability of psychological struggle, and very little risk of any actual harm," said Dr. Roland Griffiths, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and neuroscience at Johns Hopkins, and lead author of the study. For his study, Griffiths tested the effects of psilocybin on 18 participants ranging in age from 29 to 62. All participants, which were predetermined to be psychologically and physically healthy, consumed varying levels of psilocybin or a placebo once a month for five months, all while being closely-monitored by professionals. Administrators also did not know from month to month which doses they were giving to which participants, or which sessions involved the use of a placebo. At the end of the study period, Griffiths and his colleagues observed that 94 percent of the study participants rated their experiences with psilocybin either in the top five, or in some cases as the number one, most spiritually significant experiences they had ever had. The report also explains that 84 percent of participants noticed prolonged positive changes in their behaviors, in their relationships with family and friends, in physical and psychological self-care, and in spiritual devotion. "I feel that I relate better in my marriage," said one participant. "There is more empathy -- a greater understanding of people and understanding their difficulties and less judgment." Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/032940_psilocybin_health_benefits.html#ixzz2Ei6vjr3E

Tuesday, 20 November 2012

Magic mushrooms hit the God spot

The active ingredient in hallucinogenic mushrooms produces a spiritual experience that can have lasting positive effects, a trial has shown. The ingredient, psilocybin, increases wellbeing and satisfaction with life two months after being taken, according to the research by scientists at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, which is published online today in the journal Psychopharmacology. Psilocybin is a plant alkaloid that affects the brain's serotonin system, in particular, the 5-HT2A receptor. "Under very defined conditions, with careful preparation, you can safely and fairly reliably occasion what's called a primary mystical experience that may lead to positive changes in a person," study leader Professor Roland Griffiths says. Australian professor of psychopharmacology at the University of Sydney, Ian McGregor, says he isn't surprised that the study confirms the ability of psilocybin to induce a spiritual state. "Psilocybin and related hallucinogens have been used since ancient times in religious rituals and this study is really formalising ... what many people already know," he says. But he says the apparent long-term benefit of the drug is "remarkable". "To see a positive effect two months later is quite striking," he says. However, the study also reports that about a third of the volunteers experienced fear and anxiety after taking the psilocybin and McGregor says it should be avoided by anyone with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses. First study of its kind in four decades In what is described as the first scientifically rigorous study of its kind in 40 years, 36 volunteers were given either psilocybin or a comparator drug methylphenidate hydrochloride. Subjects were asked to describe their experiences immediately after the session in a set of detailed psychological questionnaires and at a two-month follow up. More than 60% of subjects (22) described the effects of psilocybin in ways that met criteria for a full mystical experience according to established psychological scales, compared to only 4 of the 36 after the comparator drug. After two months, two-thirds rated the experience as either the singly most spiritually significant in their lives or rated it among their top five. The God spot? Professor John Bradshaw, an Australian neuropsychologist from Monash University, says the brain's medial temporal lobe is rich in serotonin receptors and has previously been described as the 'God spot' because it is active in transcendental states. In a commentary accompanying the article, Professsor David Nichols of the Purdue University school of pharmacy says it's likely that psilocybin triggers the same neurological process that produces religious experiences during fasting, meditation, sleep deprivation or near-death experiences. He says the current research adds to the emerging field known as neurotheology, or the neurology of religious experience, and could shed light on the "molecular alterations in the brain that underlie religious and mystical experiences".

Monday, 19 November 2012

Psilocybe hispanica Description

The cap ranges in shape from somewhat conical to convex, and reaches diameters of 5 to 10 millimetres (0.2 to 0.4 in). Its surface is smooth, somewhat sticky to dry, and brown to brownish-yellow. The gills are somewhat adnate, and brown-violaceous with whitish edges. The stem is 16 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1.0 in) long by 0.5 to 1 mm (0.02 to 0.04 in) thick, cylindrical, and slightly bulbous at the base. It is whitish-yellow, with vinaceous or blue-green to blackish tones towards the base. Mature specimens do not have a veil on the stem. The flesh is whitish, but like most psilocybin-containing species, stains blue when injured. The spores are ellipsoid and measure 12–14.5 by 6.5–8 μm. They have a brownish-yellow wall greater than 1 μm thick and a broad apical germ pore with an acute hilar appendix at the base (a region where the spore was once attached to the sterigma). The basidia (spore-bearing cells in the hymenium) are four-spored, hyaline (translucent), and measure 32–44 by 8–12 μm. The cap cuticle is made of a layer 130–150 μm thick, with hyaline, thin-walled gelatinized hyphae measuring 1.5–4 μm broad. The hypodermium (the tissue layer directly under the pileipellis) is made of thin-walled, hyaline hyphae, 2.5–8 μm broad, with a brownish incrusting pigment. Clamp connections are present in the hyphae.
Habitat and distribution Psilocybe hispanica is a coprophilous fungus (dung-loving), and produces fruit bodies that grow solitarily or in dense groups on horse dung; sometimes more than 25 fruit bodies can arise from the same dung. In Guzmán's original report, they were found in a Pyrenean meadow in Aragon, at an elevation of 2,300 metres (7,500 ft). In 2003, the species was reported from Tramacastillo de Tena, a small village in the Pyrenees; it was also reported to have "penetrated the French part of the Pyrenees". Within its restricted range, the mushroom is "very common" at altitudes of 1,700 to 2,300 m (5,600 to 7,500 ft). Taxonomy The species was described by Mexican mycologist Gastón Guzmán in a 2000 publication, based on specimens collected by Ignacio Seral Bozal near Huesca in northern Spain in 1995. Psilocybe hispanica is classified in the section Semilanceata of the genus Psilocybe because of its thick-walled spores and fruit body that bruises blue with handling. The specific epithet hispanica is Latin for "Spanish". Uses The mushroom is consumed recreationally by Spanish youths for its mind-altering effects; other mushrooms used recreationally in Spain include P. semilanceata and P. gallaeciae. Guzmán and Castro report that a 17th-century medallion found in Tena Valley in the southern Pyrenees had images of a devil and mushrooms carved on it. The mushrooms—possibly either P. semilanceata or P. hispanica, according to Guzmán and Castro—were used in witchcraft, a common practice in the valley during the Middle Ages. It has been argued that prehistoric rock art at a site known as Selva Pascuala near the Spanish town of Villar del Humo offers evidence that P. hispanica was used in religious rituals 6,000 years ago. The rock shelter at Selva Pascuala was discovered in the early 20th century; in the early 21st century it was noticed that objects in one of the murals, which previously had been described as "mushrooms", matched the general morphology of P. hispanica: the mural depicts a row of 13 mushroom-like objects with convex to conical caps, and ringless stems that vary from straight to sinuous (wavy). Additionally, the mural shows a bull, which suggests an association with the coprophilic P. hispanica. Although the hallucinogenic species P. semilanceata is also widespread in the area where the mural was found, its differing shape (narrowly conical and acutely papillate) and its habitat on soil instead of dung suggests it is not the species represented in the mural. If the interpretation is correct, the mural represents the oldest evidence of psychedelic fungi use in Europe, and the third reported instance of rock art suggesting prehistoric usage of neurotropic fungi. The only older example is from Tassili n'Ajjer, in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria. In 1992, the Italian ethnobotanist Giorgio Samorini reported finding a painted mural dated 7000 to 9000 BCE portraying mushrooms, later tentatively identified as Psilocybe mairei, a species known from Algeria and Morocco.

Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus, also known as Agaricus calosus, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus campanulatus, Panaeolus retirugis, and Panaeolus sphinctrinus, and commonly known as Petticoat mottlegill, is a common and widely distributed little brown mushroom that feeds on dung. This mushroom is the type species for the genus Panaeolus Cap: 1 – 5 cm across, obtusely conic, grayish brown, not hygrophanous, becoming campanulate in age, margin adorned with white toothlike partial veil fragments when young, flesh thin. Gills: adnate to adnexed close to crowded, one or two tiers of intermediate gills, pale gray, acquiring a mottled, blackish appearance in age, with whitish edges. Spores: 12 - 18 x 7-10 µm, elliptical, smooth, with an apical pore, spore print black. Stipe: 6 – 12 cm by 2 – 4 mm, gray-brown, darker where handled, paler toward the apex, fibrous and pruinose. Odor: Mild. Taste: Unappetizing. Microscopic features: Basidia 4-sterigmate; abruptly clavate. Cheilocystidia abundant; subcylindric, often subcapitate or capitate. Habitat and formation Occurring singly, gregariously, or caespitosely on cow/horse dung, moose droppings, and in pastures. Widely distributed in North America in Spring, Summer, and Fall and through the Winter in warmer climates. It can be found in countries including Canada (Alberta, British Columbia), the United States (Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, the Caribbean (Bahamas, Cuba, San Vincent Island), Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, France, The Netherlands, Macedonia, Mexico, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Uganda, China, Iran, Lithuania, Kuwait, and the Philippines Panaeolus papilionaceus is edible, however it is neither choice in flavor nor substantial in mass. Contrary to popular belief, most, if not all, collections are not psychoactive. Even if it were psilocybin containing, the amount would be so negligible so as to not even be considered such for practical purposes. It is important to note that somewhat similar looking species, such as Panaeolus cinctulus, do contain psilocybin

Is there any way to reduce the risk of having a bad trip?

Experiences with hallucinogens are heavily influenced by environment. Here are some ways to reduce the risk of having a bad trip: Make sure you take it with someone you know and trust, preferably someone who knows how strong the effects can be. Make sure you are somewhere where you feel safe, secure and comfortable. Avoid taking hallucinogens if you are upset, feeling low or insecure--this could lead to a bad trip. Avoid taking more. The effects come on stronger after a while, and you could end up having a much stronger trip than you can handle. If you're having a bad trip avoid flashing lights and visuals, get a friend to take you to a safe, calm space.

Why do people take psilocybin?

Mushrooms have been taken in religious rituals in indigenous cultures in Mexico and Central America for thousands of years. Recreational users today take them as a hallucinogen that is considered gentler and more natural (less chemical) than LSD. Users report feelings of mild euphoria and tingling physical sensations. They also report increased sensitivity to music and visual sensations. Small doses (4 to 8 mg.) produce effects within half an hour which continue for 4 to 5 hours and may include mental and physical relaxation, tiredness, a sense of separateness from surroundings, feelings of physical heaviness or lightness, mood swings and perceptual distortions.

Psilocybe Hispanica

The Psilocybe Hispanica is a new species discoverd by Ignacio Seral in 98' growing high in the hills of spain. It tends to grow in colder temps, and has even been seen growing in snow. This mushroom was fround growing on horse dung, next to patches of p. semilanceata's. The discoverer of the P. Hispanica contacted P. Stamets last October, unfortuanatly Stamets schedule was to full and a European mycologist named Giorgio Samorini from Italy flew to spain and did some research to find this was a whole new mushroom and classified it as the P. Hispanica. Rumor also has it this mushroom will be featured in Paul Stamets next book Psilocybe Mushrooms of the World, Part 2 (cant wait for that one, I'm sure it will be another excellent book by Paul). We do have spore prints of this species currently, and may have some syringes soon. Its potency is said to be a very nice clean high, more potent then cubensis, but less potent then azures, more closely to that of panaeolus species. Some more detailed information from Ignacio on this mushrooms growing conditions. The hispanica appears in horse dung about the 1 of october and finish about the 1 of november.... at 1700- 2000 metres high.... the latitude of spain makes the altitude date more relevant... keep in mind that in those mountains water become ice at night and the hispanicas resist freezing temps very well so there is a very cold temps at night about +5 to -5 at night and +5 to 20 at the daytime always celsius degrees....

Woah- is that a bison charging at me?

Scientists now think they have evidence that points to the notion that man was getting high as far back as 6000 years ago. : EUROPEANS may have used magic mushrooms to liven up religious rituals 6000 years ago. So suggests a cave mural in Spain, which may depict fungi with hallucinogenic properties – the oldest evidence of their use in Europe. Of course if anyone has an appreciation of man’s lot it’s his capacity for the Apollonian and the Dionysian and we can be sure after man has figured out how the world works, it’s time to celebrate that knowledge into another realm- hence the dionysian. The Selva Pascuala mural, in a cave near the town of Villar del Humo, is dominated by a bull. But it is a row of 13 small mushroom-like objects that interests Brian Akers at Pasco-Hernando Community College in New Port Richey, Florida, and at the Ecological Institute of Xalapa in Mexico. They believe that the objects are the fungi thehawkseye.com/hispanica/hisp.html a local species with hallucinogenic properties. Isn’t good knowing that your misbehavior has its roots in the history of mankind?

From The Bodies Of The Gods With Earl Lee

The origins of modern religion in human sacrifice, ritual cannibalism, visionary intoxication, and the Cult of the Dead – Explores ancient practices of producing sacred hallucinogenic foods and oils from the bodies of the dead for ritual consumption and religious anointing – Explains how these practices are deeply embedded in the symbolism, theology, and sacraments of modern religion, specifically Christianity and the Eucharist – Documents the rites of Cults of the Dead from the prehistoric Minoans on Crete to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Hebrews to early and medieval Christian sects such as the Cathars Long before the beginnings of civilization, humans have been sacrificed and their flesh used to produce sacred foods and oils for use in religious rites. Originating with the sacred harvest of hallucinogenic mushrooms from the corpses of shamans and other holy men, these acts of ritual cannibalism and visionary intoxication are part of the history of all cultures, including Judeo-Christian ones, and provided a way to commune with the dead. These practices continued openly into the Dark Ages, when they were suppressed and adapted into the worship of saintly bones–or continued in secret by a few “heretical” sects, such as the Cathars and the Knights Templar. While little known today, these rites remain deeply embedded in the symbolism, theology, and sacraments of modern religion and bring a much more literal meaning to the church’s “Holy Communion” or symbolic consumption of the body and blood of Christ. Documenting the sacrificial, cannibalistic, and psychoactive sacramental practices associated with the Cult of the Dead from the prehistoric Minoans on Crete to the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews and onward to early and medieval Christian sects, Earl Lee shows how these religious rites influenced the development of Western religion. In particular, he reveals how Christianity originated with Jesus’s effort to restore the sacred rites of Moses, including the Marzeah, or Feast for the Dead. Examining the connections between these rites and the mysterious funeral of Father Sauniere in Rennes-le-Chateau, the author explains why the prehistoric Cult of the Dead has held such power over Western civilization, so much so that its echoes are still heard today in our literature, film, and arts Born in Rockford, Illinois (just west of Chicago) Earl has lived in Arkansas, Wisconsin, Oklahoma, and Kansas. He has a B.A. from Lyon College, a Master’s degree from the University of Arkansas, and a Master’s in Library and Information Studies from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He currently holds the rank of University Professor and works at Pittsburg State University in Kansas. The rank of University Professor is a distinction awarded to only five professors a year. Earl has written extensively in areas of Freethought and Censorship. His articles have appeared in numerous journals and anthologies, including an article on textbook censorship in the bestselling anthology: You Are Being Lied To. His recent books include From the Bodies of the Gods, and he recently co-authored a SciFi novel– The Hour of Lead: A Novel of Kansas and Other Alternative Realities. Currently he is working on a werewolf novel, along with a variety of horror stories, parodies, and erotica. His horror fiction is often graphic and always literate.
Earl’s new book is From the Bodies of the Gods, Psychoactive Plants and the Cults of the Dead – As Revealed in Pagan, Hebrew, Minoan, and Christian Traditions.

Will Psilocybin Always Produce the Same Effects?

The effects of psilocybin are unpredictable. It is different for everyone. The way a person feels after taking psilocybin depends on many factors: age and weight mood, expectations, and environment whether a person has eaten recently the type and amount of food in a person's stomach medical or psychiatric conditions the amount of psilocybin taken (dose) how often and for how long psilocybin has been used use of other drugs, including non-prescription, prescription, and street drugs

Long-Term Effects

The effects of long-term psilocybin use have not been studied. Some people have had prolonged psychosis that resembles paranoid schizophrenia. Psychosis is a loss of touch with reality. It is a mental disorder that affects the personality.

Is Psilocybin Addictive?

There is no evidence that addiction, physical or psychological dependence develops with continued use of psilocybin. However, people can become tolerant to the effects of psilocybin with regular use. Complete tolerance, where no amount of psilocybin can produce the desired effects, can develop within several days. The user must stop using for days to regain sensitivity.

The Great High Of Psychedelic Magic Mushrooms

Magic mushrooms had psychedelic substances that provide abrupt alter towards mental express, or consciousness, of a particular person making use of or consuming it. Commonly, hallucination of inexplicable sort is experienced by the user. This knowledge can last from six hours to a single complete day depending on the dosage of magic mushrooms taken. The psychedelic influence of magic mushrooms is brought from the element known as psilocybin or psilocin contained within the mushroom. This material when ingested by human beings has chemical reactions and affects the human brain, causing hallucinations and other modifications inside regular state of consciousness of the particular person. Such modifications vary according towards the volume or dosage with the mushroom taken. A low dose of psychedelic magic mushrooms will have just the appropriate influence, just sufficient visions and illusions that bring mental satisfaction or "good trip." Nonetheless, a higher dosage can have an intense sensual and perceptual influence. Every thing is amplified a thousand situations. Big dose is, needless to say, discouraged. You will find also some debates concerning the effects of magic mushrooms when smoked. Some men and women say that the psychedelic influence with the magic mushrooms is destroyed through the flame. Or if it has some consequences, the encounter or trip just isn't that very much higher. On the other hand, proponents of smoking magic mushrooms claim that the trip is just the same when dried psilocybin mushroom is smoked. 1 issue noticeable about magic mushrooms is that it really is one particular of those elements that drug testing can't commonly detect. Maybe, it's due to the fact the element isn't really illegal. The standard drug tests contain only some substances for checking including marijuana, cocaine and opium. Even employment drug tests do not check for psilocybin content for the urine. Nonetheless, psilocybin material can be detected with a comprehensive drug test plus the substance also lasts for weeks inside the body. The use of magic mushrooms has been practiced by individuals because ancient instances - dating back a million years ago.Various studies put forward a theory that psilocybin mushrooms have been part on the diet of early humans including the Homo africanus, Homo habilis and Homo boisei. Africans were believed to become the initial to have utilized the magic mushrooms. Aztecs in central Mexico have also employed psilocybin mushrooms. Because of this, magic mushrooms have spiritual and standard value to several cultures. Thus the plant need to also be treated with respect. It isn't purely a element that a single can use, very much much less abuse, at his or her pleasure. The ethnic individuals use magic mushrooms not purely for tripping. They've rituals and spiritual beliefs which are getting aided by applying the plant. As such, this tradition needs to be respected.

Magic Mushrooms Are Harmless

The Aztecs referred to them as "the flesh of the gods". Lewis Carroll based whole passages of Alice's journeys in Wonderland on them. And the Glastonbury organisers have found that, unlike Ecstasy, "shrooms" ( as the psychedelic fungi sold across the land are known ) don't fill the medical tent with dehydrated living dead. Indeed, magic mushrooms seem to have no unfavourable health effects ( unless you take them while operating heavy machinery ). Which makes it curious, as Alice might have put it, that next month's Glastonbury will be the last where devotees can journey to the spirit world without fear of ending up in a jail cell. The rationale is that a little time this summer - the small office won't identify - magic mushrooms, hitherto illegal only when dried or otherwise prepared, will, thanks to clause 21 of the new Drugs Act, be unlawful in their fresh state - and classified as a class A drug alongside heroin and crack. Clause twenty-one was rushed thru by the last Labour govt in what critics saw as a blatant attempt to appear hard on drugs. But the law is so defective it could even see Her Majesty banged up at her own pleasure for permitting psycilocybe mushrooms to flourish at Windsor and Balmoral. The government made no reference to the Advisory Council on the Misuse of substances ( ACMD ), the body that's meeting tomorrow to reconsider the downgrading of weed to class C. This raises 2 points : first, in the case of cannabis, but not magic mushrooms, the government has been prepared to defer to the ACMD not once but twice ; second, while it has been careful to be seen responding to worries about the risks of criminalising weed, it has acted in precisely the opposite fashion with mushrooms. Indeed, as groups like Release and Transform disagreed during the act's hasty passage through parliament, the main effect of clause 21 will be to criminalise a trade that, on current proof, poses little danger to any one. "If you have mental health Problems then using a hallucinogen or any recreational drug is a bad idea,' claims Steve Rolles of Transform." "But what about the bulk of folk who don't have mental fitness problems? It's like banning peanut butter because a small minority of folk are allergic to it." Magic mushrooms have a long and noble history of ritualistic use - rock paintings in Tassili, Algeria, dating back 8,000 years outline dancing shamans with what appear to be toadstools sprouting from their heads. According to Simon Powell, author of a new book on magic mushrooms, the first westerner to study mushrooms found the experience as different from alcohol "as night and day". 'How do you tell a person who has been born blind what seeing is like?' asked the New York banker-turned-ethnomycologist Gordon Wasson, after a trip to a Mexican shaman in 1955. Thanks to the ingenuity of Dutch mycologists, fresh shrooms are now as ubiquitous as incense and patchouli oil. But an unsanctioned trade thru festivals, market stalls and web outlets nudging £10m a year isn't a form of anarchy New Labour could tolerate. Hence the remarks of the small office minister Caroline Flint during the act's board stage that mushroom users were exposed to'self-harm' and LSD-style "flashbacks". In fact, as Brian Iddon, an organic chemist and the sole panel member qualified to give a systematic view, told Flint, magic mushrooms are psychedelics, not hallucinogens, and cannot be compared to LSD. And he could find no proof that mushrooms were addictive or dangerous.

Hallucinogen Toxicity

Hallucinogens comprise a unique collection of substances that are ingested to induce alterations of consciousness. A variety of substances with differing chemical structures is known to induce hallucinations when ingested in nontoxic doses. Hallucinations are usually visual, auditory, and tactile, in varying combinations, depending on the substance ingested, the setting, and the experiences of the person using them. Hallucinogenic substances have been used worldwide for centuries to induce altered states for religious and spiritual purposes. Throughout history, abuse of such substances probably was limited because of the moral and religious significance of their uses. Hallucinogens can be classified and grouped by chemical structure and the compound from which they are derived. Chemically related substances tend to exhibit similar effects. Many other agents can be classified as pseudohallucinogens because they produce psychotic and delirious effects without the classic visual disturbances of true hallucinogens. One system groups hallucinogens into 4 major classes that include indole alkaloids, piperidines, phenylethylamines, and cannabinoids. The following is a partial list of the hallucinogens by chemical derivation: Indole alkaloids Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Lysergic acid amide (LSA) Psilocin Psilocybin Piperidines Atropine and scopolamine Cocaine Phencyclidine (PCP) Ketamine Phenylethylamines Mescaline 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Methylene dioxyamphetamine (MDA) 3-methoxy-4,5-methylene dioxyamphetamine (MMDA) 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (STP) 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) Cannabinoids Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the active substance in marijuana) A number of naturally occurring hallucinogens can be found in plants and mushrooms and grow in many locations in the United States. Many of these substances have been involved in ritualistic medicine for a long time, and some are emerging agents of abuse. Included in these naturally occurring substances are dimethoxytryptamine (DMT), psilocybin and psilocin, mescaline, salvinorin A, LSA, and atropine and scopolamine. LSD and LSA LSD first appeared in the United States in 1949. Because of its potent psychotomimetic effects, it was believed to be useful in producing model psychosis for evaluation. As an experimental drug in the 1950s, LSD was used by psychiatrists and psychologists for the treatment of alcoholism and many neuroses. LSD use also was believed to enhance creativity and promote well-being. By the late 1950s, use of LSD had been proposed as a way to achieve intellectual and spiritual awakening and enlightenment. Initial studies in the early 1960s concluded that the drug was safe. By the mid 1960s, reports of increasing illicit abuse and adverse effects in patients treated with LSD led the federal government to begin regulation and restriction of its use. Although overall hallucinogen use remains fairly constant, LSD use and street sales of many substances marketed as LSD have increased. Since LSD first appeared on the street, its use and popularity have risen and fallen cyclically. LSA is a naturally occurring hallucinogen that is a close analog to LSD. LSA is found in a variety of plants, most notably Ipomoea violacea (morning glory), Argyreia nervosa, and Stipa robusta. Phencyclidine and ketamine PCP and ketamine are piperidine derivatives with potent anesthetic properties and illusionogenic properties. PCP was initially marketed as an anesthetic but was withdrawn from use because of widespread reports of postanesthetic dysphoria, delirium, and psychotic behavior. PCP was introduced as a veterinary anesthetic in the late 1960s and, beginning in California, soon became a major drug of abuse. The "peace pill," as it was dubbed in San Francisco, began to be distributed as everything from THC to LSD and often was added to marijuana cigarettes. It commonly is referred to as "angel dust." Ketamine, a widely used anesthetic, increasingly has been found on the streets and often is ingested by large numbers of people at so-called raves. Psilocin and psilocybin These indole alkaloids are found worldwide in a variety of mushrooms and have been used by indigenous peoples of Central America for centuries in religious rites. Ingesting only a few mushrooms may produce hallucinogenic affect, but, generally, large numbers of mushrooms are required. Analysis of street samples of "psilocybin" found that less than one third of the samples actually contained the alkaloid. Mescaline Mescaline is a phenylethylamine-derived alkaloid that is found worldwide in a variety of cacti, the best known being the North American peyote cactus. Similar to the mushroom-derived hallucinogens, mescaline in the form of peyote cactus buttons has been used in rituals by many Native Americans for centuries. To achieve the desired effect, 5-10 buttons are chewed and ingested. Salvinorin A Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen that is found in a variety of plants but is named from Salvia divinorum, or diviners sage, a member of the mint family. Salvinorin A is unique, in that unlike other known hallucinogenic substances that interact with serotonin (5-HT2 receptors) metabolism, this substance has been identified as the first known naturally occurring kappa-opioid receptor agonist. This substance has been used by the Mazatec Indians in Mexico for ceremonial purposes. Although salvia remains uncontrolled, there are several states that have significantly restricted it, and the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) is looking into placing it as a Schedule I controlled substance. Atropine and scopolamine Atropine and scopolamine are found in a variety of plants, and overdoses can induce hallucinations as well as a variety of more serious effects. Both are found in Datura stamonium (Jimson weed), Atropa belladonna (Deadly nightshade), and Mandragora officinarum (Mandrake), and scopolamine alone in Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane). Designer drugs Designer drugs were originally described as such as they were derived from chemically altered legitimate parent compounds. These drugs were initially derived to circumvent prosecution by the Drug Enforcement Agency. However, changes to federal drug laws in 1986 made all such chemically altered compounds illegal. Most of these substances are chemically derived from methamphetamine, but increasing numbers of opioid-derived substances as well as new classes of agents are appearing in this category. The best known of the hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives is MDMA, commonly known as "ecstasy." The following is a list of common designer drugs with hallucinogenic properties and the substances they are derived from: Amphetamine derivatives MDMA (ecstasy) MDA Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) R,S -1-(1',3'-benxodioxol-5'-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB) R,S-N -methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (MBDB) Piperazine derivatives Benzylpiperazines - Benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP) Phenylpiperazines -m -Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), p -methoxyphenylpiperazine (MeOPP) Pyrrolidinophenone derivatives R,S -alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) R,S -4'-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MOPPP) R,S -3',4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP) R,S -4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) R,S -4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (MPHP) Many of the newer designer drugs are also described as belonging to the hallucinogenic tryptamines, of which the naturally occurring agents psilocin, psilocybin, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) belong. Two of the newest agents in the group are "foxy" (5-MeO-DIPT) and alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT). Other agents in this group include bufotenine, alpha-ethyltryptamine, diethyltryptamine (DET), and 5-MeO-DMT.

Physical

Predominant findings in these intoxications are neurologic. Fever, tachycardia, and hypotension may occur because of agitation. Neurologic findings include the following: Ataxia Incoordination Confusion Delirium Psychosis

Epidemiology

Frequency United States Determination of the frequency of hallucinogenic mushroom toxicity is limited by a lack of a national reporting system or registry for mushroom poisoning and the fact that many affected individuals may never seek medical attention. However, estimates based on small studies or surveillance systems using self-reporting are available. In one study of 174 adolescents with a history of substance abuse, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms at some point in their life, often combined with alcohol or marijuana. From data collected from September 2008 to December 2009, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported that 8% of students had used an hallucinogenic drug, including LSD, PCP, angel dust, mescaline, or mushrooms, at least once in their life. Use was more common among males and whites than among females and African Americans and Hispanics. Mortality/Morbidity Mortality from hallucinogenic mushrooms is very rare. Age While little data exist on the age of users of hallucinogenic mushrooms, college students are known to abuse psilocybin mushrooms.

Pathophysiology

Ibotenic acid is an agonist at central glutamic acid receptors; its decarboxylated derivative is an agonist at gamma-amino butyric acid receptors. Central effects of these hallucinogenic mushrooms are thought to be caused by these actions. Although muscarinic acid originally was isolated from A muscaria, the clinical syndrome does not suggest marked significance; in fact, anticholinergic findings may be observed. The psilocybin group contains the indoles psilocybin and psilocin. Psilocin and its phosphate ester, psilocybin, are similar in structure to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). They are structural analogues of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine); thus, hallucinogenic effects probably are mediated through effects on serotonergic receptors.

Magic Mushrooms Demystified - A Comprehensive Guide To The Fleshy Fungi

Strophariaceae is a reasonably common family of saprophytic magic mushrooms with brown to purple-brown to purple-black spores and attached gills. A veil is generally present, but does not necessarily form an annulus (ring) on the stalk. The gills aren't usually decurrent as in Gomphidius and Chrogomphus, nor are they typically free as in Agaricus, nor do they deliquesce as in Coprinus. The small, fragile species resemble Psathyrella and Panaeolus, but tend to have a viscid and/or brightly coloured cap. The magic mushrooms in this family is also share many anatomical ( miniscule ) characteristics: the cap cuticle is mostly filamentous instead of cellular, the spores are smooth and often have a germ pore and the gills often feature special sterile cells (chrysocystidia) which have a highly refractive golden content when mounted in potassium hydroxide (KOH). Four genera are recognized here, all of which integrade to a degree: Pholiota has dull brown to rusty-brown spores and is consequently placed in the Cortinariaceae by some mycologists; Stropharia, Psilocybe and Naematoloma have deep brown to purplish or black spores and are often lumped together (by the "lumpers," naturally) in a single or giant genus, Psilocybe. The latter three genera are differentiated largely on microscopic traits like presence or absence of chrysocystidia, but can customarily be told in the field by the aggregate of traits released in the key. This is not important family from a gastronomic perspective. However , it is the most major group for magic mushrooms hunters because Psilocybe is the principal genus of hallucinogenic or'pupil-dilating' magic mushrooms. The active guidelines are psilocybin and psilocin. Psilocybe enjoys a notoriety grossly disproportionate to its visibility, for it embraces some of the most exalted and sought-after of all mushrooms -as well as some of the most common-or-garden. The exalted ones are the hallucinogenic ("pupil-dilating") species popularly known as "Magic Mushrooms."The Psilocybes as a group are different to characterize : the majority are listless little brown magic mushrooms ("LBMs" ) wit a viscid cap (when wet) and dark (purplish to virtually black) spores. The hallucinogenic species usually turn blue or greenish when bruised, especially on the stem, but virtually any "LBM" can be mistaken carelessly for a Psilocybe -with possibly disastrous results! A good spore print is critical, as it will eliminate the brown-spored genera (Galerina, Inocybe, Conocybe, and so on.), which contain many lethal species. Among the dark-spored genera, Coprinus has deliquescing gills, Psathyrella typically has a non-viscid cap and never stains blue; Panaeolus species with a viscid cap grow on dung and have black spores and Naematoloma and Stropharia species are sometimes brightly coloured, while the cap color in Psilocybe (with the notable exception of P. Cubensis) is usually some shades of brown, grey or buff. In contrast to popular belief, Psilocybes don't grow completely on that brown stuff that sounds like a bell. Rather, they occur in a wide selection of habitats: in grass, on wood chips and mulch in landscaped areas, on decaying wood, and in humus or beds of mossin forests and bogs. The hallucinogenic species are particularly abundant in two varied locales : the Pacific Northwest and Southern Mexico. In our area, alas, they're like solar eclipses -seemingly rare, though actually more common than any one person's experience would indicate. Put simply, they are not something you can really look for. It is more a matter of geography -being in the right spot at the right time. Psylocybe is a pretty big and tricky genus. Only a few species are "pupil-dilating," and those that are not are too small or too rare to be of food value. Since it was discovered that native americans near Oaxaca, Mexico, used certain magic mushrooms to prompt changed states of conciousness, Psilocybes have received an inordinate level of attention in the northern US press. Underground newspapers and mags are full of flighty articles on "getting off," there is a surfeit of "magic mushrooms" field guides and cultivation manuals available and as so regularly occurs, it has become difficult to sort fact from fiction. Much more reason to develop a methodical awareness of magic mushrooms habits and traits before leaping into the field of the "LBM's."

Ecology

Psilocybin mushrooms can be found and grown in a variety of places. You can grow them in your house of you can find them in the wild. However, since there is a very wide variety of poisonous mushrooms it's much safer to buy a kit of their spores and grow them yourself. The most common places to find them in the wild are in cow and horse fields in tropical or subtropical states. Also in British Columbia they find it better to grow in cool, dark and damp areas. Psilocybin mushrooms are also known as magic mushrooms due to the effects that they have on people. When orally ingested it is broken down to produce psilocin, which is responsible for hallucinogenic effects. However these effects are unpredictable and can change with the dosage and the person taking them. The physical effects vary with the amount ingested but the ones usually experienced are: loss of appetite, coldness in extremities, increase of pulse rate, numbness of the mouth and adjacent features, nausea, elevated blood pressure, muscle relaxation, swollen features, yawning, weakness of limbs and dilated pupils. Not only can you be affected physically but sensory as well. Vision, speaking, and tactile sense changes may be noticed after about ten minutes. Colors and music become more vivid and complex, surfaces seem to shimmer, ripple, or even breathe. In some cases people begin to see and hear things that aren’t actually happening. Sensations of melting into the earth and seeing trails behind moving objects can occur as well. As for the emotional effects it really depends on the environment the person is in.

Anatomy

The basic anatomy of a mushroom is the cap, gills, the ring, volva, scales, stipe/stalk, pores, tubes and cap scales. Most of them are on the smaller side and average at about 3 inch stalks and 1 inch caps. When they’re fresh they have a light gray, brown, or yellow stem with brown-and-white or just brown caps consisting of dark gills. However there are several different species that are in the genus psilocybe. For the most part they all have the same appearance except for the differences in the environment and sizes. As you may know mushrooms look very similar to each other no matter what genus they’re in so the way to tell you have found an actual psilocybin mushroom is from its spore print. To get this you press the gill sided part of the cap onto a sheet of paper so that the spores are released to where identification is possible.

Psilocybe subaeruginosa

Cap: 1.5-5 cm. broad. Conic to convex expanding to broadly convex with a slight umbo. Stranslucent and striate when moist. Hygrophanous fading in drying to a pallid brown to a dingy white. Gills:Adnate to annexed. separate from stem. Smokey-brown to purplish-brown. Stem:50-125 mm long by 2-5 mm thick. Slightly swollen at base. Hollow and adorned with white fibrils. Spores:13-15 by 6.6-7.7 microns. Sporeprint:Purplish-brown. Habitat:Solitary to gregarious in complex habitats such as soils rich in woody debris, decaying piles of leaves and twigs, sandy woody soils, gardens and amongst bark chips from pine (Pinus radiata). Distribution:Australia and New Zealand Season:May through August Dosage:1 to 3 small mushrooms or one large mushrooms fresh. Dried 1 gram. Comment:This species is macroscopically close to Psilocybe azurescens but without the definite umbo of P. azurescens. Also very close macroscopically to P. aucklandii, P. australiana and P. eucalypta.

Psilocybe villarrealiae

Cap: 40-50 mm long, convexed and plain, hygrophanous and ochraceus with some bluing and blue green along the edge of the cap. Margin translucent-striate. Gills: adnate to subsinuate, and somewhat violaceous in color at the margin of the gills. Stem: 50-60 x 4-7 mm. Reddish brown with white scabulous fibrils on stipe. Bruising blue when damaged or with age. Spores: (5.5-) 6.5-7.5 (-8) (-9) x (4.5) 5-6 µ Sporeprint: Violet to Chocolate-brown. Habitat: Common in the Mexican State of Jalisco, the influence of many new, as well as old ecosystems and microclimates are important for the distribution of these species. Riparian forests extend from sea level to about 2800 m elevation, with species of Populus predominating in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Mexico and species of Alnus in more temperate zones with cooler climates area good habitat for finding this species. Psilocybe villarrealiae is a big mushroom, preferring to grow near rivers and along river creeks with vegetation classified as clod. Subtropical forests appear to be a natural humid habitat for these species, as well as are open spaces and under bushes. Sometimes, large collections of this species can be observed near Magnolia spp, and Alnus spp., where wood debris is buried and mixed with muddy soil, red soil, in pine forest mixed with oaks, and in subtropical forests near small creeks. Distribution: It has a logistic distribution in Jalisco and can be found in the towns of San Sebastian del Oeste, Mascota, and Zapopan. P. villarrealiae also occurs in many other regions of Jalisco such as in Sierra de Quila Season: Generally, rainy season occurs in certain parts of Mexico from June through September. However, we report that sometimes the mushrooms appear as early as May and continue to fruit until October. Dosage: Unknown. Comment: Psilocybe villarrealiae acts as a second decomposer,growing from sawdust, which we were able to observe in the town of Mascota,and we also found it to be growing out doors as well.

Pluteus salicinus

Pluteus salicinus, shown here, has a bluing form that has been shown to contain psilocybin and psilocin. The presence of a bluing reaction in mushrooms frequently indicates the presence of these hallucinogenic compounds, though what produces the bluing is unknown. Mushrooms can contain psilocybin and still not produce a bluing reaction. In addition compounds like boletol produce a bluing reaction in mushrooms that contain no hallucinogens. The darkening reaction on the stems of some deadly Galerinas can be mistaken for a bluing reaction, so caution and a sound knowledge of how to identify mushrooms is always in order if you are going to consume wild mushrooms.

Sunday, 18 November 2012

Teonanácatl, the "sacred mushroom" of the Aztecs

About 60 years passed after the elucidation of "peyotl" before the second magic Mexican drug "teonanácatl" could be analysed in the Research Laboratories Sandoz Basle (Switzerland). Teonanácatl, an Aztec word which could be translated as "sacred mushroom" or "God's flesh", was mentioned by the Spanish chroniclers as early as the sixteenth century, as were peyotl and ololiuqui. The most important source of information on this drug is de Sahagun's famous chronicle, "Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España", written in the years 1529-1590. It contains data on the use of intoxicating sacred mushrooms which were eaten by the Indians of Mexico at their feasts and religious ceremonies. From the Sahagun's chronicle and from other reports it can be seen that teonanácatl was not only ingested at social and festival occasions but also by witch doctors and soothsayers. The mushroom god-which the Christian missionaries called the devil- endowed them with clairvoyant properties, which enabled them, besides other things, to identify the causes of diseases and indicate the way in which they could be treated. The use and the worship of these mushrooms by the Indians of Central America must be very ancient. In Guatemala so-called "mushroom stones" have been found. These are stones carved in the form of a pileate mushroom, in the stem of which the head or entire figure of a god is depicted. The oldest specimens found are over three thousand years old. It can therefore be concluded that the mushroom cult of the Indians dates back to more than thousands of years before Christ. More detailed historical data can be found in the monograph of the Wassons' "Mushroom, Russia and History". Although this mushroom cult is very old, our knowledge of it is very recent. For some centuries the reports in the old chronicles were given surprisingly little attention, probably because they were regarded as extravagances of a superstitious age. However, between 1936 and 1938, American investigators, i.e. Weitlaner, Reko, Johnson, and Schultes, ascertained that mushrooms are currently still being eaten for magical purposes by the natives in certain districts of southern Mexico.
Systematic studies of the mushroom cult in its present form were later made by the amateur investigators R. Gordon Wasson and his wife, Valentina Pavlovna Wasson. Between 1953 and 1955 they made several expeditions to the remote mountainous districts of southern Mexico to study the current use of the magic mushrooms. In the summer of 1955, R. G. Wasson was for the first time able to take active part in a secret nocturnal mushroom ceremony in Huautla de Jimenez, Province of Oaxaca, and probably was the first white man to ingest the holy mushrooms. This experience, which impressed him profoundly and which convinced him of the hallucinogenic effect of the mushrooms, has been described by him in detail in his monograph. On a further expedition in 1956 Wasson was accompanied by the mycologist Roger Heim, director of the laboratoire de cryptogamie du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris. Heim succeeded in identifying and classifying the most important types of mushrooms used for magical purposes by the Indians. These were foliate mushrooms (agaricales) of the family Strophariaceae, mostly new types, the greater part belonging to the genus Psilocybe, as well as one species of the genus Stropharia and one species of the genus Conocybe. Subsequently cultures of some of these species were successfully grown in the laboratory. Artificial cultivation provided a very good yield, especially of one of these sacred mushrooms, namely, Psilocybe mexicana Helm. The chemical analysis of this mushroom material was effected in the Pharmaceutical Chemical Research Laboratories of Sandoz Ltd. in Basle by A. Hofmann and collaborators. The mushroom extracts were first tested on animals. Studies were made of pupillary reaction and of piloerection in mice and of general behaviour in dogs. The results were not clear-cut and led to disagreement in the evaluation of the various extract fractions. After most of the very rare and valuable material (or rather the extract) had been given to the animals without effect, there was some doubt as to whether the mushrooms cultivated and dried in Paris were still active. A personal trial by the author of this article settled this fundamental point. He ate thirty-two dried specimens of Psilocybe mexicana weighing 2.4 g, a medium dose by Indian standards. The mushrooms exerted a marked psychotomimetic effect which was described as follows

Amanita muscaria

Welcome to the friendly world of Amanita muscaria, A very special fungi sometimes referred to as "Soma." Soma is said by some scholars to be a mushroom known amongst the ancient Aryans. It's virtues are honored and preserved forever in the pages of Tombs of the Vedic Scriptures (Rig Veda). On the following pages we have devoted our time in presenting a pictorial of photographs of Amanita muscaria and similar related species and their variations which contain the chemical compounds of ibotenic acid and muscimol, the active ingredients known to occur in these mushrooms. Also included are several Graphic Art designed images created by John W. Allen which represent the magnificence of these visionary mushroom as exotic ethereal trans-dimensional otherworldly states of existence and a chronology of references on the known published books and articles devoted to preserving for the public eye, the a pathway to the knowledge and history behind the study of this famed 'mushroom of immortality.'

Inocybe aeruginascens

Cap: 1-5 cm broad. Conic at first and expanding with age to convex and plane with an obtuse umbo. Margin incurved in young. The color is osrdid buff ot ochraceous brown with greenish tinges. Gills:Adnate to nearly free, crowded, pale grayish brown to clay brown with greenish tones and bruising blue where injured. Stem:22-50 mm long by 3-7 mm thick, equal with some swelling at the base. Solid, whitish to pallid becoming bluish green from the base upwards. Pruinose near the apex and fibrillose below. partial veil corinate and disappearing. Bruising blue where damaged. Spores:7.5-10 x 4-5 microns. Sporeprint:Clay brown in deposit, smooth, ellipsoid and inequilateral. Habitat:In sandy soils (including dunes) underneath Populus (poplars) and Salix (willows) Distribution:Widely distributed across the temperate regions of the world. Reported from central Europe and western North America. Season:June through October. Dosage:1-2 grams dried. Comment:Contains psilocybine, baeocystine and a newly discovered Indole by Gartz which he named aeruginascine. Was the cause of several unintentioanal intoxication in Europe in the 1980s and was reported as being very euphoric in its actions and effects.

Panaeolus subbalteatus

Cap: 2-5.5 cm broad. Fawn-colored to reddish-brown, zonate from the outer edge of the cap with several bands of reddish-brown colors towards the center. Sometimes with a slight umbo. Hygrophanous, fading to a straw yellow to pallid in drying to a pallid dull white. Margin slightly incurved when young, often becoming pitted and wrinkled with age. Gills:Adnate and slightly ventricose. Brownish to black with white edges. Stem:4-10 cm x 2-7 mm. Reddish brown with vertical grooves running down the length of the stem. Hollow with short white fibrils. Sometimes bluing at base of the stem. Spores:11.5-14 x 7.5-9.5m Sporeprint:Jet black. Habitat:On dung, rotted and/or composting hay. Also in lawns, pasturelands, riding stables and race tracks, in horse manure and stable shavings. Fruits in the early spring and late fall. Distribution:Cosmopolitan: Oregon, Washington, Idaho, east coast of the United States, Great Britain, Europe, Russia, Asia, Australia Mexico, Central and South America and British Columbia, Canada. Season:In the USA, February through May during the spring rains and from mid-August through September. Dosage:2-5 large specimens or 20-30 small specimens. 3-5 grams dried and/or one ounce of fresh mushrooms. Comment:Fruits abundantly in rotting haystacks in the Eugene-Corvalis region of Oregon and to a somewhat lesser degree in manure heaps throughout much of the world.

Panaeolus africanus

Cap: 1.5-2 cm broad. Obtusely conic, hemispherical and rarely broad in age. Cap becomes pitted and wrinkle with age cracking to fornm scales. Viscid when moist, especially in young speimens. Grayish creamy white and grey-brown in age. Incuved margin in young specimens, often irregular and non-translucent. Flesh is greyish-white. Gills:Adnate to adnexed, and sometimes sinuate, rarely subdecurrent and widely spaced., greyish at first and then soon becoming black to blackish and mottled as spores mature. Stem:30-50 mm by 4-6 mm thick. Equal and firm as well as pruinose towards the apex. White with pinkish tones, generally lighter than the cap and no veil remnants present. Spores:11.5-14.5 x 7.9-10 microns. Lemon shaped and often variable. Sporeprint:Black in deposit. Habitat:Found on hippopotamus and elephant dung. Distribution:Central Africa to the Southern Regions of the Sudan. Season:In the spring or during the rainy seasons. Dosage:According to Mycologist G-M. Ola'h, this species is weakly active. Comment:This species macroscopically resembles the psychoactive mushroom Panaeolus antillarum. Accodring to Paul Stamets, he found one small collection of this species at the Seattle, Washington Zoo

Psilocybe samuiensis

Cap: 7 to 1.5 cm. Convex to conic-convex to campanulate, often umbonate with a small papilla. Translucent when moist, striate margin in young, and with a separate pellicle. Hygrophanous and fading to straw-yellow in drying Gills: Adnate and clay colored, than violaceaous brown to chocolate-violet with whitish margins. Stem: 40 to 60 mm. long by 1-2 mm thick. Whitish to yellowish and covered with fibrils. Enlarged at base. Partial veil cortinate leaving a superior fibrillous annular zone that soon disappears. Spores: 9.3-13 x 5-7m. Basidia 4-spored. Pleurocystidia scattered and ventricose towards the base. Sporeprint: Chocolate to Purple-brown. Habitat: Grows in well manured clay-like soils in rice paddies and open grassy areas. Distribution: Koh Samui Island in the gulf of thailand and surrounding areas. Season:Late may through Septembewr and possibly into October. Dosage:15-1=20 fresh mushrooms. Comments:So far this mushroom has only been found four times, fruiting in rice paddies from two locations on Koh Samui Island in the Gulf of Thailand. First in 1991 by John W. Allen in rice paddie fields near the muslim village of Ban Hua Thanon, Koh Samui. Ten years later, a 2nd collection was gathered with Chief Ill Eagle, Travis Canady, Nataya and Mike Acevedo, about 100 meters past where the first collection was found ten years before. In 2003, JWA found 8 specinmens in a second location a few miles down the road in the rice paddie fields of Na Muang, Koh Samui. And again in 2004, numerous collections were gathered from that same field during two separate fruitings in June and July of 2004. Its fruiting run is from 5 to 7 days and then they are gone formthe fields. Most lkely it is probable that this species also fruits in other locations in southern Thailand and possibly Malaysia. It is not, as reported by http://www.petfungus.com found in Eastern Oregon. This species is closely related to Psilocybe mexicana Heim and is macroscopically similar to Psilocybe semilanceata and is the first species found outside of Mexico directly related to Psilocybe mexicana Heim which is ceremoniously used by native Americans in Mesoamerica.

Psilocybe moravica

Cap: 2,5-3,5(-7) cm across, hemispherical or conical when young, margin joined to stipe by a cotinate white veil, becoming plane-hemisphirical, very obtusely conical, broadly campanulate or conical and margin becoming somehat mildy wavy. Margin striate when moist. Strongly hygrophanous and fragile with a separate pellicle. Sometimes bluish to bluish green with a blue spot in center of cap. Dark brown when moist, fading to a yelloish-ochraceous or yellow-brown, bluish toned. Gills: Thin, close-spaced, adnate, not subdecurrent, acurate in young and broad with maturity (ventricose). Brown and dark m when mature, with a grey tone and white edges. Stem: 5-9(-12) x (0,15)0,2-0,3(-0,4) cm, cylindrical, often with a somewhat scabrous surface, Usually lank, lesscommonly robust, short and didtincly curved and not enlarged at the base. with remains of a partial veil building a fibrillous annualar zone. Whitish rhisomorphs at base fibrillating into woody debris Whitish and off white, rarely whole stipe blue-green tinged. Stains blue when bruised. Spores: (10)11-13,5(-14,8) x (6-)6,2-7,0(-7-8) microns. Brown, ellipsoid, broadly ellipsoid or elongated and somewhat lemon-shaped. Sporeprint: Purple-brown Habitat: In groups on woody debris in deciduous or mixed forests, in grass on woody debris in soil and underbrush of Utica or Rubus, often in localities disturbed by human influence with accumulation of woody waste. Distribution: It has been onbly reported from five distinct localities int he Czech Republic, 230-700 m above sea level. Season Late September to end of november, or mid December depending on warm autumn months.: Dosage: Unknown at present Comment: This fungi according to the author smells sweet and spicy not farinaceous and taste rather bitter. 9 specimens of this mushroom from two localities in the Czech Repulic were analysed for psilocine/psilocybine content and showed a high concentration of psilocine as compared to a low content of psilocybine. Higher concentrations of indole derivatives were found in fruitbodies obtained from lower elevations. This is the third bluing Psilocybe described in the Czech Republic.

Psilocybe silvatica

Cap: .8-2.5 cm broad. Obtusely conic to campanulate with an acute umbo. Tawny dark brown when moist, fading to a pale yellow-brown. Smooth, viscid when moist with a thin gelatinous pellicle. Gills: Adnate to adnexed. Close to subdistant and narrow to moderately broad. Dull grayish brown to cinnamon or smoky brown with age. Edges white. Stem: 20-80 mm long x 1-3 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarge at the base. Brittle. Spores: 6-9.5 x 4-5.5m. Sporeprint: Dark purplish brown. Habitat: Gregarious but not cespitose on wood debris, wood chips (preferably alder), or even decayed conifer substratum. Distribution: From west of the Cascades in southern Oregon to British Columbia, Canada. Also reported from Idaho and as far away as Finland. Season: From late September through December. Comments: Very similar to Psilocybe pelliculosa and is usually found growing along with them. Stamets (1996) reports that in some colonies of Psilocybe silvatica the caps were more yellow in appearance than those of the caps of Psilocybe pelliculosa. Dosage: moderately weaker than Psilocybe semilanceata. From 20 to 40 fresh mushrooms, 1/3 of a fresh ounce or from 2 to 4 grams dried.

Psilocybe atlantis

Cap: 26-38 mm diameter in dried specimens, conic to convex, smooth to slightly striate, dry and pale brown. Gills: subadnate, thin, brownish, finely mooted and the edges are concolorus. Stem: 40-45 x 2-4 mm (in dry specimens), equal, subbulbous, and brownish red to grayish-brown, covered with dfine small brownish scales towards the base of the stipe. Bluing is evident Spores: (8-)9-10 (-11) x (5.5) 6-6) microns. Yellowish-brown with a braod germ pore Sporeprint: Chocolate to purple-brown. Habitat: Gregarious on soil. Distribution: Known only from the type locality in Fulton County, North of Atlanta, Georgia. Season: August. Dosage: Unknown Comment: This species belongs to the section Mexicana and is the second species found in Georgia. The name atlantis is for the type locality