Tuesday, 13 November 2012

Typical purities

Hallucinogenic mushrooms show a large variety in potency. The potency depends on species, origin, growing conditions and harvest period. The most potent species, e.g. Psilocybe semilanceata, contain up to 1 % (g/g; 10 mg psilocybin per 1 g dried mushrooms), although for other species (e.g. Psilocybe azurenscens, Psilocybe bohemica) higher concentrations than 1 % g/g have been reported. The maximum amount of psilocybin and psilocin in Psilocybe cubensis (ordinary psilocybe) is about 0.6 %. The average percentage of active ingredients in dried mushrooms is about 10 times as high as in fresh mushrooms. This is mainly because about 90 % of the weight of fresh mushrooms is made up by water. Variations in potency are lower in cultivated mushrooms than in those growing in the wild. Some hallucinogenic mushrooms contain various amounts of phenethylamine. Phenylethylamine is a sympathomimetic amine; it can be responsible for cardiovascular effects (tachycardia) and other unwanted reactions. Reports from the United States suggest that often mushrooms sold as hallucinogenic mushrooms prove to be normal grocery-bought mushrooms laced with LSD, PCP (phencyclidine) or other substances. In an 11-year study, 886 samples that were said to be psilocybin were analysed. Only 28 percent of these were hallucinogenic mushrooms, while 35 percent were other drugs, mostly LSD or PCP, and 37 percent contained no drug at all.