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Monday, 19 November 2012

Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus, also known as Agaricus calosus, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus campanulatus, Panaeolus retirugis, and Panaeolus sphinctrinus, and commonly known as Petticoat mottlegill, is a common and widely distributed little brown mushroom that feeds on dung. This mushroom is the type species for the genus Panaeolus Cap: 1 – 5 cm across, obtusely conic, grayish brown, not hygrophanous, becoming campanulate in age, margin adorned with white toothlike partial veil fragments when young, flesh thin. Gills: adnate to adnexed close to crowded, one or two tiers of intermediate gills, pale gray, acquiring a mottled, blackish appearance in age, with whitish edges. Spores: 12 - 18 x 7-10 µm, elliptical, smooth, with an apical pore, spore print black. Stipe: 6 – 12 cm by 2 – 4 mm, gray-brown, darker where handled, paler toward the apex, fibrous and pruinose. Odor: Mild. Taste: Unappetizing. Microscopic features: Basidia 4-sterigmate; abruptly clavate. Cheilocystidia abundant; subcylindric, often subcapitate or capitate. Habitat and formation Occurring singly, gregariously, or caespitosely on cow/horse dung, moose droppings, and in pastures. Widely distributed in North America in Spring, Summer, and Fall and through the Winter in warmer climates. It can be found in countries including Canada (Alberta, British Columbia), the United States (Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, the Caribbean (Bahamas, Cuba, San Vincent Island), Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, France, The Netherlands, Macedonia, Mexico, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Uganda, China, Iran, Lithuania, Kuwait, and the Philippines Panaeolus papilionaceus is edible, however it is neither choice in flavor nor substantial in mass. Contrary to popular belief, most, if not all, collections are not psychoactive. Even if it were psilocybin containing, the amount would be so negligible so as to not even be considered such for practical purposes. It is important to note that somewhat similar looking species, such as Panaeolus cinctulus, do contain psilocybin